projects::arch linux on ec2

summary

Arch Linux's minimalistic philosophy and high degree of customizability makes it a great choice for compute cloud deployment. It's light, fast, and scalable.

I am doing releases of Amazon EC2 AMIs based on Arch Linux roughly once per month.

contact

IRC Join us on irc.freenode.net in #archlinux-ec2!

If you find a bug or have any other comments, please send me an email, or ping me on twitter.

NOTE: This project is not run, sponsored, or endorsed by my employer or the Arch Linux project.

current releases

Release 2019.04.15

HVM Images

region ebs
hvm
x86_64
lts
s3
hvm
x86_64
lts
ebs
hvm
x86_64
stable
s3
hvm
x86_64
stable
us-east-1 ami-099e7b22978deabf8 ami-073724cdd197dd656 ami-083bde2b02ecfad4a ami-03bbefa8ff6398d62
us-east-2 ami-08e981b80f8b9e250 ami-0743c04884b8e2d21 ami-00bd106b8e16a1533 ami-0ce84697cab7229d1
us-west-1 ami-0d903b88a46da4855 ami-03e4b68dc0ee0a244 ami-07060f2d9d2df8053 ami-02597a05cb27533ef
us-west-2 ami-0db569c6451dcc92c ami-0056e907f1a7345e9 ami-00d87ced7b4dd7ddf ami-0caf551c7aff16c73
ca-central-1 ami-087b715a69497752d ami-080a548ccb59c14ba ami-0e6747c59c899d2a2 ami-0b281033bc27a1451
eu-central-1 ami-0ffca76c52d91e9bd ami-0b198819bc40ba3ad ami-0e04e4db8fe0cab1e ami-0ed502a089f3b500b
eu-west-1 ami-02991bb653f076d05 ami-017bc573bee0c6b08 ami-07a6c8455061ffdd5 ami-09928ba8288640e9a
eu-west-2 ami-079730b77b7703c06 ami-0e40f9a5fd954cc3d ami-043ec22f1b737c72a ami-0e573c0de5ae583a5
ap-northeast-1 ami-0769071135f7ab18e ami-0bb350b0b44ec9090 ami-0cbad2ec8acebee9b ami-00c94228ce9605f79
ap-northeast-2 ami-04023840dba1d12da ami-0437c93b816e1a90e ami-0459b0da51ece0516 ami-0c3fec6f0d2488d71
ap-south-1 ami-0e8bdb63267a1a106 ami-0caf10145c5bacc0e ami-0a6deb72e6317890a ami-0a2f13681e024f1c7
ap-southeast-1 ami-0e0c47042ceff5ad9 ami-0a5c4fd95353f64bc ami-0d89b0a00e67db6f3 ami-00bfda775519ea5f6
ap-southeast-2 ami-093323115bb11859e ami-0635a7030b70626a2 ami-0d093a9b7c3a2b888 ami-0cff69cf5fbe59e47
sa-east-1 ami-06f8cfdb31efee5bb ami-0f00e7a14d64a6097 ami-0970d8332ddad6056 ami-0e9a256db47d7d8c5

Release 2019.02.14

HVM Images

region ebs
hvm
x86_64
lts
s3
hvm
x86_64
lts
ebs
hvm
x86_64
stable
s3
hvm
x86_64
stable
us-east-1 ami-099a97582fc329220 ami-0f3e8b77b8c2778cb ami-01369e963f950f946 ami-01df52d7241ba0e0b
us-east-2 ami-0df161876e71a7c0d ami-0e2de6cb24cf1c14f ami-02beba5dbfdaf405c ami-0707dcf38c9b20aea
us-west-1 ami-00ded2e1f0ddff2de ami-08246a773a94f6b22 ami-001a645e38c581cbf ami-054f38472c96d6a2d
us-west-2 ami-082ed8856d15b5b61 ami-055dcf41b9134d057 ami-0cbfb8b1fb3bd84c5 ami-0fbbafb6cc4c7a4d6
ca-central-1 ami-001c13a8d776e8b20 ami-0798abb83edeb857e ami-07d2c3177145b93f8 ami-06868e9130c4dc36d
eu-central-1 ami-026fdcdf013148278 ami-08cf197b2afde8cca ami-0ef74515ab1b79411 ami-007af05d735554fe3
eu-west-1 ami-0d3de71a850c5fff4 ami-098046800b83d287e ami-087448657ff7b2e88 ami-0bddf63da707848d3
eu-west-2 ami-06ecef7f52c4d5719 ami-0bf29d5cf57e289b8 ami-0f4c63e56ea172004 ami-0d90aeba0bc1a4fd7
ap-northeast-1 ami-05da47ae93b6a94cc ami-0fc7de334ad88f432 ami-0188a48fb6cbb15ed ami-0fe8f404898a7fcba
ap-northeast-2 ami-0668575951892ec9e ami-00fb925b17f5bd506 ami-0e0554e3811b811c0 ami-0841bc28d3a266a8d
ap-south-1 ami-051a7a3fde4bf70af ami-044d089795d8af3fb ami-020316815b7b9c4bc ami-0ea18a8a6ab418136
ap-southeast-1 ami-0f6b257e394958d80 ami-0c4b60cdc7794de90 ami-0af224f84ca923be2 ami-040172e01ee87592b
ap-southeast-2 ami-0fbf603582177baab ami-07d6c9c501cde0f7b ami-06866cc19f46c9cab ami-04d4b4d43330b2eaf
sa-east-1 ami-0ceb803c5c5c840b9 ami-0102569e1829a6431 ami-0fdabe28445b97870 ami-045c8b261075a5287

tools

The EC2 image build process is public, but the AMI registration portion is not. Here are the necessary tools to create an image file, but see the 2013-05-26 news post for information on how to register the images in EC2.

  • ami-build-backend - These files are held on the PXE server, and fetched when the guest boots.
  • ami-builder-image - This is a fork of archiso with some changes to automatically pull down my install script and do a few other things.
  • ec2-packages - These are the sources for all the packages contained in the 'ec2' Pacman repository.

recent changes and news

  • 2017-01-13

    I've added images for eu-west-2, ca-central-1, and us-east-2 as of today's release!

  • 2016-10-06

    The paravirtual images aren't booting properly in some regions, apparently because PV-GRUB is failing to load /boot/grub/menu.lst.

    Since PV is deprecated by AWS anyway, I'm going to stop making paravirtual AMIs from now on.

  • 2016-01-03

    Whoops. I didn't notice my GPG key was going to expire on January 2nd. My bad. I've updated the keypair and submitted it to pgp.mit.edu as well as created a new ec2-keyring package. Unfortunately to install the new keyring package you need to manually unbreak your Pacman keyring by fetching the updated key directly from the keyserver:

    # pacman-key -r A7B30DB9
    gpg: requesting key A7B30DB9 from hkp server pool.sks-keyservers.net
    gpg: key A7B30DB9: "Steven Noonan <steven@uplinklabs.net>" 5 new user IDs
    gpg: key A7B30DB9: "Steven Noonan <steven@uplinklabs.net>" 42 new signatures
    gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model
    gpg: depth: 0  valid:   1  signed:   7  trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u
    gpg: depth: 1  valid:   7  signed:  66  trust: 1-, 0q, 0n, 6m, 0f, 0u
    gpg: depth: 2  valid:  66  signed:   6  trust: 66-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 0u
    gpg: next trustdb check due at 2016-01-22
    gpg: Total number processed: 1
    gpg:           new user IDs: 5
    gpg:         new signatures: 42
    ==> Updating trust database...
    gpg: next trustdb check due at 2016-01-22

    Once you do the above, you should be able to "pacman -Syu" as normal.

  • 2015-07-30

    The Arch Linux AMIs have been moved to a different AWS account. This unfortunately means that all the S3 buckets had to be recreated, and when that happened the old S3 endpoints stopped working correctly. Since pacman doesn't know how to handle HTTP 301 redirects, you're going to have to manually update any existing Arch Linux instances you have. To do this, need to change your /etc/pacman.conf repo path from this:

    [ec2]
    SigLevel = PackageRequired
    Server = https://s3.amazonaws.com/arch-linux-ami/repo/$arch

    to this:

    [ec2]
    SigLevel = PackageRequired
    Server = https://arch-linux-ami.s3.amazonaws.com/repo/$arch

    Be sure to force an update of the package databases once you're done:

    # pacman -Syy

    I've also stopped producing AMIs for the Beijing, China (cn-north-1) region for the moment. If someone has an account in that region and wishes to produce the AMIs for me there, please get ahold of me and we'll work on making it happen.

  • 2014-07-26

    I've added AMIs for the Beijing, China (cn-north-1) region.

  • 2014-06-27

    We're now up to Linux 3.15.2. I've removed xen-fbfront from the initramfs, because the module was causing 30-second boot delays:

    [    2.050081] tsc: Refined TSC clocksource calibration: 2793.267 MHz
    [    6.370066] xenbus_probe_frontend: Waiting for devices to initialise: 25s...20s...
    [   12.390306] random: nonblocking pool is initialized
    [   16.370070] 15s...10s...5s...0s...
    [   31.371241] xenbus_probe_frontend: Timeout connecting to device: device/vfb/0 (local state 3, remote state 1)
    

    The module is not required for an instance to boot correctly, so it can be removed from the initramfs. If you are running an AMI older than the 2014.06.27 release and would like to improve your instance's boot time, you can prune the module yourself:

    [root@ip-10-0-155-25 ~]# grep fbfront /etc/mkinitcpio.conf 
    MODULES="button ipmi-msghandler ipmi-poweroff virtio virtio-blk virtio-net virtio-pci virtio-ring
    xen-blkfront xen-fbfront xen-netfront xen-pcifront xen-privcmd hv_storvsc hv_balloon
    hv_vmbus hv_utils hv_netvsc ixgbevf"
    [root@ip-10-0-155-25 ~]# sed -ri 's/xen-fbfront //g' /etc/mkinitcpio.conf 
    [root@ip-10-0-155-25 ~]# mkinitcpio -p linux-ec2
    ==> Building image from preset: /etc/mkinitcpio.d/linux-ec2.preset: 'default'
      -> -k /boot/vmlinuz-linux-ec2 -c /etc/mkinitcpio.conf -g /boot/initramfs-linux-ec2.img -S autodetect
    ==> Starting build: 3.15.2-1-ec2
      -> Running build hook: [base]
      -> Running build hook: [udev]
      -> Running build hook: [modconf]
      -> Running build hook: [block]
      -> Running build hook: [filesystems]
      -> Running build hook: [growfs]
      -> Running build hook: [keyboard]
      -> Running build hook: [fsck]
    ==> Generating module dependencies
    ==> Creating gzip initcpio image: /boot/initramfs-linux-ec2.img
    ==> Image generation successful
    [root@ip-10-0-155-25 ~]#
    

    After removing xen-fbfront from mkinitcpio.conf's MODULES section, subsequent reboots will be 30 seconds shorter. Before:

    [root@ip-10-0-155-25 ~]# systemd-analyze
    Startup finished in 32.530s (kernel) + 3.997s (userspace) = 36.528s

    After:

    [root@ip-10-0-155-25 ~]# systemd-analyze
    Startup finished in 2.345s (kernel) + 2.092s (userspace) = 4.438s
  • 2014-06-19

    The AMI now uses systemd's networkd, timesyncd, and resolved services. This makes the AMI have a significantly smaller footprint. Right now our biggest non-core packages are CUDA (in the GPU AMI) and cloud-init, which has a large dependency chain. I'd like to slim things even further, but I'll need to investigate how to do so.

  • 2014-03-24

    We're up to Linux 3.13.7 for the ec2 kernel and 3.10.34 for the ec2-lts kernel. I didn't make a news post earlier, but kernels are now built with 'debug' and 'strip' options, which will create split-out debug information packages (i.e. linux-ec2-debug, linux-ec2-lts-debug). This is useful for tools like perf, oprofile, and systemtap. Note that the -debug packages are compressed with 'lrzip'. New AMI builds have lrzip preinstalled, but if you're running an instance based on one of the older AMIs, you will need to install lrzip before you can make use of the -debug packages.

  • 2013-11-28

    New AMIs are being built right now and contain a couple changes:

    • EBS root volumes are now automatically resized to fill the block device. You can take advantage of this feature by launching an instance with a root volume size larger than the snapshot.
    • The resolv.conf file permissions are now 0644, allowing non-root users to resolve hostnames.

  • 2013-11-26

    Geoff H. and David B. both reported an issue with the current AMI release. The /etc/resolv.conf permissions are set to 0600 rather than 0644, which means that non-root users cannot resolve hostnames to IP addresses. This is an unintentional regression, most likely caused by a default 'umask' change in some package. dhclient will create a new resolv.conf and copy it over any existing file, which preserves the target file's permissions. But if no such file exists, then the permissions of the source file are copied. Previously, this worked fine because the file was generated with 0644 permissions, but now it's being generated with 0600. I've implemented a fix for future AMI builds. In the meantime, if non-root users need to perform DNS requests in your instances, be sure to do 'chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf'.

  • 2013-11-06

    A new ec2-pacman-mirrors package is available, and will provide your instances with optimal Arch Linux mirrors for your EC2 region. The upgrade path is as follows:

    1. Edit /etc/pacman.conf, change 'ec2' mirror URL to https://s3.amazonaws.com/arch-linux-ami/repo/$arch
    2. Run 'pacman -Sy ec2-pacman-mirrors'

    New AMIs will be published very shortly which use the new mirror list and point to the new EC2 package repository.

  • 2013-05-26

    I've added some links to this page, which are the complete set of files needed to do an EC2 image build. This does not include the AMI registration process, however. The tools Amazon provides for HVM AMI registration are still under NDA at the moment, and the bits necessary to do that are included in my AMI registration tools. So I can't make those public right now. The process itself can be replicated relatively easily, though:

    1. Build your VM image using the build-backend and builder-image repos above. PXE is what I use, but you could just as easily make it into an ISO or something. If you intend to do an S3-backed AMI, you will need to make the image no larger than 10GB (I use 8GB).
    2. Trim the image down (I do a 'mount -o loop,discard' on the image, then 'fstrim' the mount point, making the image into a sparse file).
    3. Tarball the image (tar cSzf, S to preserve the sparseness).
    4. Upload the tarball to S3.
    5. In each region, launch an instance and attach an empty 8GB EBS volume to them.
    6. On each of those instances, download the tarball and extract with 'tar xSf'.
    7. Use 'ddpt', an enhanced dd which pays attention to the sparseness of the image, to copy the raw image file into the EBS device. I use "ddpt if=<imagefile> of=/dev/xvdf bs=512 conv=sparse oflag=sparse,fsync". The sparseness aspect is important, because otherwise you're copying empty blocks onto the EBS device, which makes the snapshot take much longer, and is really just a waste of time. EBS volumes already read-as-zero, so there's no sense copying zero blocks.
    8. Detach the EBS volume and terminate the instances.
    9. Snapshot the EBS volume.
    10. Delete the volume (not needed now).
    11. Use ec2-register to create an AMI from the snapshotted volume.

  • 2013-03-22

    I've started creating AMIs which have CUDA preinstalled. These are for the cg1.4xlarge instance type.

  • 2013-02-05

    Nothing too exciting lately. Today's release has Linux 3.7.6.

  • 2012-11-22

    New AMI releases, now with cloud-init. Thanks to Jeremy D for contributing his time and effort to making cloud-init work well on Arch Linux.

  • 2012-11-12

    Released new AMIs, primarily for the new AWS region in Sydney, Australia (ap-southeast-2).

  • 2012-11-08

    Today's AMIs are released. Nothing too fancy in this build: just updated packages, including linux-ec2 3.6.6-1.

  • 2012-10-21

    I've added a new linux-ec2 package which contains a patched v3.6.2 kernel. There are a few major differences between this kernel and the Arch Linux stock kernel:

    • Hangs on Xen fixed (patches from 3.6.3 stable-queue).
    • CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY instead of CONFIG_PREEMPT, this will allow for better scheduling as a domU.
    • CONFIG_HZ=100 instead of CONFIG_HZ=300, this allows for better performance on many-CPU instances, as there are fewer timer interrupts to preempt other tasks.
    • Many drivers removed, particularly those that didn't make sense for running in an EC2 instance. I've left drivers for my own hardware so I can experiment with it as a dom0 kernel as well. The kernel size is roughly half the stock Arch Linux kernel due to the stripped drivers.

    I am also building new AMIs right now, and am beating the i386 AMIs into working order. Once done I'll publish the next release (which should be 2012.10.21). Once it's available, it will show in the tables above.

  • 2012-10-16

    Do not upgrade HVM instance kernels to anything between 3.6.0 and 3.6.2 inclusive. You must wait for 3.6.3 or else your instance will not boot. We're currently waiting on this patch to be integrated into the mainline stable tree. This is also why I am probably not doing an AMI release this week, as the HVM AMIs would be totally broken.

    I've also taken a look at building i386 (well, i686) AMIs. I'm not really sure that it's worth the effort. Nobody really uses 32-bit AMIs anymore, and we'd need to fork the kernel just to make it happen. For now, i686 is on ice.

release notes

These AMIs are as close to a "vanilla" install as I can make them without making them functionally impaired on EC2. But here's the complete list of differences between the EC2 builds and a stock install:

  • High performance kernel specifically for EC2, including paravirtualization support on i386 and x86_64 AMIs, and more Xen-friendly process scheduling.

  • Kernel modules included in initrd, some of which are relevant outside of EC2 contexts (e.g. if you want to run the image in a non-EC2 environment such as KVM or Hyper-V):

    • KVM: virtio virtio-blk virtio-net virtio-pci virtio-ring
    • Xen: xen-blkfront xen-netfront xen-pcifront xen-privcmd
    • Hyper-V: hv_storvsc hv_balloon hv_vmbus hv_utils hv_netvsc
    • IPMI (e.g. EC2 reboot request): button ipmi-msghandler ipmi-poweroff
    • EC2 enhanced networking SR-IOV driver: ixgbevf
  • Extra packages installed: audit, cloud-init, ec2-keyring, ec2-pacman-mirrors, irqbalance, lrzip, openssh, rng-tools, rsync, systemd-sysvcompat

  • Added an extra package source for ec2-specific packages. The repository currently contains numerous packages useful on EC2. You can view the list of packages by doing 'pacman -Sy; pacman -Ss | grep ^ec2'

  • Additional services enabled at boot: rngd, sshd, cloud-init, irqbalance, auditd, systemd-networkd, systemd-timesyncd, systemd-resolved

  • User's public key is pulled from the EC2 instance metadata service at startup, and added to /root/.ssh/authorized_keys

  • SSH configured with 'PasswordAuthentication no', enforcing public key authentication

  • pacman loads (and automatically lsigns) the 'archlinux' and 'ec2' keyrings on the first boot (the latter keyring contains my public key used for package signing in the ec2 repo).

  • pacman mirror list is automatically selected at boot based on a list I created (based on rankmirrors run on instances in each region). These lists are provided by the package ec2-pacman-mirrors, which is in the ec2 repo.

  • dhclient is used instead of dhcpcd for robustness reasons. I found that dhcpcd gave up too quickly if it tried to do a DHCPREQUEST when the vif wasn't completely up, making the EC2 instance inaccessible.

  • dhclient is configured to retry forever, and request the following dhcp options: subnet-mask, broadcast-address, time-offset, routers, domain-name, domain-name-servers, host-name, interface-mtu, fqdn

  • /usr/bin/pinentry is symlinked to /usr/bin/pinentry-curses instead of the default pinentry-gtk, since gtk isn't available in this install and the primary access method is SSH.